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Monday, June 28, 2021

Dog Head Gear That’s Not A Muzzle

 Dog Head Gear That’s Not A Muzzle


Jumping and pulling on leash are the two most requested training solutions requested by the average dog owner. As humane training evolves, a set of kind, as well as helpful training gear systems, has developed. The no-jump leg harness and the no-pull chest harness are recent inventions.

Often mistaken for a muzzle and thereby creating unwarranted fear in a passerby, the headcollar has been used for thousands of years on llamas, camels, and horses. It was adapted for dogs 20 years ago by Dr. Roger Mugford and is proven to stop pulling ahead.

Today a dog sporting a head collar or halter is a common sight. Dr. Mugford developed the Halti brand head collar as an alternative to the physically damaging choke chain used to control large, aggressive, or difficult pets. The head collar works for goofy dogs, high prey drive, or overstimulated dogs and is welcome safety equipment for children, seniors, or any small handler with a large dog.

A consistent problem with traditional leash training is that the dog instinctively reacts to tension by pulling even harder against that tension. The head collar uses distraction and direction instead of force to shape the desired behavior. Used properly, the head collar allows the handler to steer a dog much the same way as using reins and a halter on a horse.

While the head collar is effective used alone, the initial training can include a regular leash attached to the neck collar or a body harness, and a second lighter leash attached to the head collar ring positioned under the dog’s chin. When the dog pulls ahead the handler directs the dog back with a smooth, gentle steer of the head collar leash. If used in tandem, the regular leash remains slack.


The basic theory is that where the head is turned the body naturally follows. When the dog’s head is turned back, he or she loses sight of the distraction ahead. The dog learns to choose which action-reaction feels best and which gets to a desired destination quickest without stops and starts.

Technique and fit are important for success. As with any new experience, the dog needs to be introduced to a head collar in a positive way. First sessions might simply be a couple of minutes in the living room. The head halter is presented so that the dog puts a nose and then eventually the entire muzzle through the loop to get a treat. The collar is not attached yet. When first clipped on, the dog wears the harness without a leash and enjoys interactive play with a toy or a game of fetch.



If the dog paws at the device or flops on the floor, the process is too fast. Back off and again present loop and treat then move forward to fastening the collar behind the head. It must not be too tight or too high, which risks eye injury as well as being uncomfortable. Fit correctly, a conforming collar does not constrict panting or yawning like a muzzle does. Just as the dog anticipates good things to come when a handler reaches for the leash, he or she comes to expect good things when the head collar is presented.


Once the dog is trained, which can be quite quickly, the head collar is removed and can be carried in a pocket as a lifelong helping tool for situations likely to cause arousal. An excursion involving crowds, lots of movement, and excitement might warrant putting on the head collar ahead of time. If it has become a positive reinforcer and fits well, the dog won’t mind.

There are several brands of head collars with different features. The most important points are that the halter be the right size, positioned correctly conforming to the head and face, presented with positive association, and used with a soft touch. Walking the dog should and can be a mutually satisfying activity for everyone of every age or stature, including the dog.

Tuesday, June 22, 2021

Horses - The Tapeworm Threat

Tapeworms were once considered a fairly benign parasite, unassociated with serious problems in equines. But recent studies show tapeworms are anything but harmless. Consider the statistics:



  • 81 percent of ileal impactions (a blockage at the end of the small intestine, commonly referred to as an impaction colic) are associated with tapeworms.
  • 22 percent of spasmodic (gas) colics are tapeworm-related.
  • Ileocecal intussusception (a serious, surgical form of colic where one part of the intestine telescopes into another) is almost always caused by tapeworm infection.
  • On average, more than 54 percent of horses in the United States have been exposed to tapeworms, including 96 percent of horses in the upper Midwest, more than 80 percent of horses in some Southern regions, and 56 percent of horses in the northern Plains and Mountain regions. Even in the lowest-risk areas of the West Coast, at least one out of every 10 horses has tapeworm exposure.


    Why didn’t we know about this before?

    Tapeworms Uncovered
    “Tapeworms are intestinal parasites that infect horses, as well as other species, throughout the world,” explains Brady J. Bergin, DVM, assistant professor, Oregon State University. “They belong to the class of parasites known as cestodes. The three types of tapeworms that can infect horses are Anoplocephala perfoliata, Anoplocephala magna and Paranoplocephala mamillana, with A. perfoliata being by far the most common.”

    Unlike other worms, horse tapeworms need an intermediate host to complete their life cycles. That host, the forage mite, becomes infective by ingesting tapeworm eggs; the horse swallows the infective mites while grazing, and the tapeworms mature in the horse’s intestine within six to 10 weeks. Although much is unknown aboutthe mite’s biology, they’re widespread, living in pastures, lawns and vegetation, says Craig R. Reinemeyer, DVM, Ph.D., immediate past president of the American Association of Veterinary Parasitologists, and president of East Tennessee Clinical Research Inc., the research group that identified tapeworm prevalence in the United States. The mite also seems to favor temperate climates. “They live in the humus, the organic layer of the soil,” says Robert H. Dressler, DVM, manager of Equine Veterinary Operations at Pfizer Animal Health. “In the arid desert areas of the Southwest, there isn’t a whole lot of humus, and that’s where there is a much lower incidence of tapeworms.”

    Bottom line: Any horse that grazes on pasture is at risk for ingesting infected mites.
    Although studies now demonstrate that tapeworms are everywhere in the United States (albeit in varying numbers), experts had been unaware of their prevalence because of the inability to accurately diagnose tapeworm infection in the horse. “Traditionally, we looked for tapeworm eggs in fecal exams, but that’s been very ineffective,” Dr. Reinemeyer says. “With most other parasites in horses the females stay in the gut and pass out eggs, and the eggs leave the horse in the manure. With tapeworms, the eggs develop in a lower segment of the worm’s body, which separates and passes out in the fecal matter into the environment, but it’s not an ongoing process. The tapeworm body is like a freight train with a bunch of boxcars, one chained to the other. The end of the tapeworm matures faster than the rest of it, so every once in a while the caboose (which is like a bag of eggs) drops off. That bag may not rupture until it gets outside the horse or gets farther down the track, we don’t know.” Consequently, detecting tapeworm eggs in the manure is a hit-or-mostly-miss procedure. And because veterinarians weren’t seeing tapeworm eggs in fecal exams, they assumed there was no tapeworm problem.

    Further, although tapeworms were detected during surgery or postmortem, they weren’t associated with any disease process.

    That all changed in the mid-1990s when a British researcher developed a test that could detect an immune response to a specific protein exuded by tapeworms into the horse’s blood. Although this test only determines exposure to tapeworms as opposed to an active infection (much like horses that have been exposed to equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, or EPM, don’t necessarily have the active disease), it was a step in the right direction and enabled researchers to discover just how widespread tapeworms are.

    Since then, researchers learned that tapeworms cause degrees of intestinal damage and disease. Dr. Bergin says, “This damage occurs when large numbers of tapeworms firmly attach to certain areas of the digestive tract, such as the small intestine or, more specifically, the ileocecal junction (the common opening of the ileum, colon and cecum). Their attachment can lead to inflammation, irritation and ulceration at this site, impairing normal function. This intestinal malfunction can also adversely affect the digestive tract, leading to three common types of colic associated with tapeworm infestation: ileocecal intussusception, ileocecal impaction and spasmodic colic.”

    Those are the recognized problems caused by tapeworms. Undetermined are the problems a “typical” or low-grade tapeworm infection causes. “Does it cause low-grade diarrhea, low-grade colic, weight loss?” Dr. Reinemeyer ponders. “We don’t know. But anecdotal evidence suggests tapeworms may cause low-grade colic after intense exercise.”

    Dealing With It
    Even though prevention of tapeworms isn’t truly possible, you can successfully treat these parasites in a horse and prevent the onset of colic and other complications that may be related to tapeworm infection, notes Tom Kennedy, Ph.D., vice president of research and development, Farnam Companies Inc.

    In the past, equine tapeworms were controlled with double or triple doses of pyrantel pamoate. “That did a fairly good job but was not 100 percent effective,” says Kevin Hankins, DVM, field veterinary consultant for Fort Dodge Animal Health. “It was costly plus it was sometimes a nightmare to get two or three tubes of dewormer into a horse.”

    But the recent development of praziquantel in paste and gel formulations for horses offers an affordable, easier, and, to date, more effective alternative. “Praziquantel has been around for a long time, and has been used extensively in dogs and cats,” Dr. Hankins states. “It kills the tapeworms in the horse by destroying the worm’s protective, tough outer layer, thus making the parasite vulnerable to the horse’s immune system, which takes care of it from there.”

    Explains Frank Hurtig, DVM, manager, Veterinary Professional Services at Merial Inc., “The addition of praziquantel to horse parasite control medicines containing macrocyclic lactone drugs (i.e. moxidectin and ivermectin) has been an advance in treatment and control of tapeworms in horses. Praziquantel has a wide margin of safety in horses.” Thus with one dose, praziquantel/macrocyclic lactone formulations offer treatment of tapeworms as well as broad-spectrum activity against strongyles, ascarids, pinworms, bots and other common horse parasites.

    Currently, there are four praziquantel/macrocyclic lactone products available: ComboCare (Farnam), Equimax (Pfizer), Quest Plus (Fort Dodge) and Zimectrin Gold (Merial).

    The only precaution is treating a horse infected with a lot of parasites or one that is clinically ill, Dr. Hankins says. “If they have a very high parasite load, you could end up causing an impaction from all of the parasites killed off in the gut. Also, when parasites die off, they can produce a toxin, and that can make your horse sick. If your horse is already ill or heavily parasitized, his immune system is likely suppressed and would react differently to a normal deworming schedule; that is why dewormers are labeled as only for use in healthy animals.” Some veterinarians treat at-risk horses by either administering a reduced dose and/or administering mineral oil 24 hours prior to deworming to help with the passage of the dead parasites.

    Currently, praziquantel is labeled only for treatment, not prevention. But Dr. Hurtig notes, “Since tapeworms are extremely difficult to definitively diagnose in the live horse, it is best to simply treat for tapeworms on a frequent basis.” This will benefit horses, since using praziquantel products routinely at labeled dosage recommendations removes tapeworms before they become a problem instead of after a problem (i.e. colic) is apparent.

    Work with your veterinarian to develop a program that’s specific for your horse and climate. Dr. Bergin says that there is not a single catch-all recipe for controlling parasites that works for every horse in every area—it’s based on a number of factors that need to be evaluated, and from there your veterinarian can create a plan.

    Although praziquantel is safe, don’t overuse it as parasites likely will build resistance to it. Dr. Reinemeyer explains, “Frequent use of dewormers puts tremendous pressure on the parasites to adapt to survive this continuous onslaught, so they select for resistance. We’re seeing that now with ascarids and ivermectin.”

    Include management techniques in your deworming program. “Good pasture hygiene is a critical management technique for the control of tapeworms as well as other parasites,” Dr. Bergin says. To reduce the spread of parasites, remove manure from stalls daily, dispose of fecal material away from pastures and feed/water supplies, and chain drag or harrow pastures to break up manure piles. Don’t feed your horses directly on the ground; this increases the risk of ingesting forage mites since it is where they typically reside. Avoid overcrowding or overgrazing pastures (rotate if possible). Finally, quarantine all new additions to the herd and perform fecal exams to determine parasite status in general and to avoid the introduction of parasites.

    Down the LineWhile differentiating between tapeworm exposure and an active infection is still a guessing game, researchers hope to soon change that. Stephen Kania, Ph.D., associate professor, University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine, has developed a test, with the support of the American Quarter Horse Association, that detects proteins released by the tapeworm parasite into fecal material. “This test differs from antibody detection in that a positive result is likely to indicate an active parasite infection,” Dr. Kania says. “We are currently at the stage of validating the test with samples from a large number of horses.” If all goes well, it’s possible this diagnostic test will be available in two or three years and could be a great aid in advancing knowledge on tapeworm infection.

    Fortunately, you have the tools now to avoid tapeworm problems in your horse. Discuss the risks of infection in your area with your veterinarian and work out a responsible deworming program appropriate for your horse.
  • Friday, June 11, 2021

    Hot Tips To Keep Your Pet Safe This Summer

    Pets do not sweat in the same way humans do and can easily become overheated. To avoid this problem and enjoy the summer season with your pet, here’re the tips to keep in mind.


    1. Provide plenty of water and shade


    Dehydration in dogs and cats is a real possibility during the summer. Our dogs get much thirstier than we do when they get hot. Signs of dehydration include dry gums and excessive drooling. Make sure your pet always has access to fresh, clean water inside the house and bring a bottle for your furry companion when going outside, just like you do for yourself. You might also switch to a wet dog food during the hotter months to increase fluid intake.

    Keep your pet in the shade as often as possible. While dogs and cats like to sunbathe, direct sunlight can overheat them (especially dogs) and lead to heatstroke.




    2.Know the signs


    A dog's normal temperature is between 100° and 103°F, while a normal temperature in cats ranges from 100.4º to 102.5ºF. Anything higher than that means your pet’s in danger. Dogs and cats don’t sweat like we do. They drink water and pant to bring down their body temperature.

    Watch for these possible symptoms of overheating:


    • Heavy panting
    • Dry or bright red gums
    • Thick drool
    • Vomiting
    • Diarrhea
    • Wobbly legs

    If your pet shows signs of heat exhaustion, move them to a cool place, give them a drink of water, put a damp towel over their body, and get them to the vet asap. Don’t place your pet in cold water, that can put them into shock.

    3.Never leave your pet in the car


    Most pets love riding in cars. But they wouldn’t enjoy being stuck in it somewhere in the parking lot when it heats up to over 100 degrees. You may think leaving your pet in a car for a few minutes is no big deal. However, it can take less than 10 minutes to develop heat stroke in dogs and cats inside the hot vehicle.

    Leaving your pets in cars not only dangerous to your pet, but it is also illegal in 16 states that have specific “hot car” laws. So, either take your pet with you or leave it at home. If you see a pet left alone in a car under dangerous condition, take action immediately - try searching for the owner asap or even call the police.

    4. Apply sunscreen


    Believe it or not, pets get sunburns too, especially those with short or light hair coat. And just like with people, it hurts and can even lead to skin cancer. If you are planning to spend a day out in the sun with your furry companion, apply sunscreens every 3-4 hours to the least hair-covered spots: bellies, ears, and nose. Use only sunscreens made specifically for pets. Your vet could advise on the product suitable for your pet fur kid.

    5. Don’t shave your pet


    You might think shaving your dog a cat for the summer is the best solution to overheating. But a pet's coat is naturally designed to keep it cool during the summer and warm in the winter. Feel free to trim the fur on your pet in the summer, but never shave. Be sure to leave at least a full inch of hair to protect your pet’s skin from sunburns. And don’t forget about your pet’s regular grooming schedule, no matter what season it is.

    6. Mind your walking hours


    If you have a dog, walk and exercise your pup only in the early morning and late evening. Never do it in the middle of the day. When outside, take breaks in the shade and have water available.

    7. Keep your dog's paws cool


    Pets heat and cool from the bottom up. If you’re out in the sun together, try to keep your pet off of hot surfaces like cement and asphalt. Not only can it burn paws, but it can also increase body temperature and lead to overheating. It’s also not a good idea to drive around with your dog in the back of a truck – the hot metal can burn paws quickly.


    Thursday, June 10, 2021

    |Snuffle mat| How to get your dog to chill out

    The idea behind the snuffle mat is to hide your dog's kibble in it for them to find. If you do not feed your dog kibble, you can give him a few treats instead.

    As you can envision, this will back your canine off a considerable amount while they're eating. It additionally urges your canine to utilize their nose, which gives mental incitement as your canine is attempting to discover the food covered up in the mat. 






    Dog eats too fast


    You can utilize your snuffle mat because is a slow feeder rather than a food bowl when you feed your canine, or briefly of enhancement for the duration of the day, as they are a brilliant weariness buster. 
    Note that like with all games and toys, canines ought to be managed while drawing in with the snuffle mat. Eliminate it once your canine has tracked down all the food or treats to keep them from eating the mat or peeing on it.

    BUY NOW


    Are Snuffle Mats good for dogs?


    Yes, snuffle mats are good for dogs as there are many benefits for using them. 
    One of the benefits is that they’re slowing down fast eaters. If you feed your dog their main meal from a snuffle mat, your dog will naturally eat slower. 
    Another benefit is that your dog gets to use their nose during the activity, which is hugely satisfying. 
    You can also use a snuffle mat to practice self-control exercises with your dog. For example, you can tell your dog to sit and wait while you prepare the snuffle mat. 

    Can you wash a Snuffle Mat?


    Yes, snuffle mats are normally washable, but it will depend on the respective mat whether they are machine washable or need to be washed by hand.
    If you purchase a snuffle mat online, check with the supplier on how to wash the mat. Often the best option will be a simple hand wash.


    This is to guarantee that you get to keep your snuffle mat for a long time. Many of them are not cheap if you buy them, and they can be pretty time-consuming to make yourself. In short: it’s better to be safe than sorry. 

    Cool Summer Treats For Your Cat

    Summer days mean beaches, barbecues, and lots of outdoor fun. But unfortunately, it also means that there’ll be some days that are so hot that you find yourself longing for cooler weather. Like you, your cat also enjoys feeling comfortable when the weather becomes oppressive. So, to keep your cat cool, we’ve got some ideas that will help your cat chill out:





    Melons

    Do you love chomping on a slice of watermelon in the summertime? Well, guess what? Your cat does too. Many cats enjoy eating watermelon—or any type of melon, actually—when the weather starts to heat it up. So when your cat seems particularly aggrieved over the heat, try giving him or her some seedless melon. Just make sure not to overdo it—this sugary treat should be provided in moderation.

    Ice Cubes

    What says fun more than a new toy? Enter the ice cube, a sophisticated toy that your cat is sure to love. And at the cost of free, this is one of the cheapest and easiest ways that you can keep your pet cool and active. Simply put a couple of ice cubes on the floor and allow your cat to bat away at them. To make it even more enjoyable, try putting dry cat food in the center so as the ice melts, your cat gets closer and closer to procuring a tasty treat.

    Frozen Peas

    This is a food that not only is enjoyable to eat, but as with ice, it’s also enjoyable to play with. Simply put some frozen peas on the floor and let your cat have fun with them. As with the melons, don’t go overboard. Peas should be kept to small amounts.

    Cool Towel

    Design a “chill” area in the house for your cat to cool off. Just wet a towel, place it in the freezer, and once it gets cool, put it on the floor in a location that your cat might want to lay down (avoid carpeted areas). If the towel is too cold at first, no worries—it’ll grow warmer in time. Don’t force your cat to use the towel but show it to him or her and let them choose whether they want to use it.

    Shady Retreat

    If you have an outdoor cat, consider making a shady “home” of sorts for your pet. In a well-shaded spot, place a comfortable bed. Make sure that when you create the spot for your royal highness, that you have a bowl of fresh water on hand. Your feline will think this outdoor haven is the cat’s meow!
    There are many ways that you can keep your cat cool over the summertime. Just grab some chilled food, a few ice cubes to play with, and set up a cozy outdoor home. You’ll find that your cat will love chilling out in regal style. Or, if you’re headed away on a summer vacation, let us keep your cat cool with a stay-cation while you’re away!

    Saturday, April 3, 2021

    Happy Easter

    Wednesday, March 31, 2021

    Understanding Prey Drive

     Discussions on dealing with aggressive dogs usually turns in the direction of how to deal with these situations when they occur but should be directed to prevention. People speak of correction and control in training when they should speak of refocusing and promoting correct behavior. As a long term Flyball team member, captain of a consistent top ten team, owner of several successful Flyball dogs, and mostly as a professional trainer who has a large amount of experience in solving aggression cases; I am going to put my two cents in.
    First of all, let's clarify prey-drive versus chase drive. A prey driven dog will chase with a great deal of focus on the object it is pursuing and a definite goal of attaining access to its target. A chase driven dog will also chase but usually not with the same intensity or absolute drive to reach its target as the end goal. Many of you have done chase games with both types of dogs. The prey driven dog will drive as hard as it can until it reaches you and when it does you or your toy usually gets hit like a ton of bricks. The chase driven dog can be somewhat frustrating as it will chase you, but not with the drive or intense targeting behavior of the prey driven dog. This dog will often pursue the handler in chase games, but will run on by and not follow through to actually catch the handler. The chase driven dog usually does not exhibit the sudden increased burst of speed that a prey driven dog will when the handler increases their speed. Unfortunately, either tendency can lead to dog chasing and/or aggression (more so in the prey driven dog).

    Secondly, let's apply this to Flyball training. All are born with different levels of pre-dispositions towards movement fixation. The funny thing here is that the dogs with strong prey-drive can potentially be some of the best Flyball dogs. Dogs very much learn what to fixate on. Unfortunately, many dogs learn to fixate on other dogs very early in their training. Practices such as letting the dog watch, or tying them to walls during practices, or running with a pack too much early in their career can be a major culprit. It is a known fact that a restrained dog watching movement go by will usually begin to fixate on the moving object. Everyone in Flyball knows this or why else would we build speed and drive through "restraint" recalls. Eventually through frustration, the restrained observing dog may become aggressive towards the moving dog. When a dog does not know the game and is watching, the most interesting thing is the dogs running by. So, those leaping, barking restrained dogs are not keen to play the game, but are keen to chase the dogs. Therefore, we must make these tendencies work for us and not against us. Do not let green dogs spend their time learning to develop a moving dog fixation; and certainly do not let already problematic dogs feed their fixation. In order to do this you may loose ten pounds, but the bottom line is the handler needs to get physical. My basic rule with a new dog or an already problematic dog is he is always playing chase games with me when he is around moving dogs. If a pre-existing severe focus problem exists then we begin around one non-moving dog and gradually build up. The idea is to develop a mind-set in the dog that the movement going on around him is insignificant and never involves him, and that you are the only interesting target . This takes a great deal of effort on the owners part as it is physical, and hard work to run around focusing your dog on your movement only(Tug games are excellent for this). It is certainly much easier to establish in a new puppy with no pre-conceived ideas. It can be a bigger project when you are trying to solve a pre-existing problem, but it is do-able. I am not saying that you would not use correction at all, but it is much more reliable to have a dog with this altered owner driven mind set than to rely on a negative consequence to make the dog restrain himself. I am also concerned over comments that the dog prey drives to get the ball and brings it due to the control you have on him. What all the top teams know is that the retrieve of the ball is only an activity en route to the drive to pursue and catch the handler. If the chase or prey drive is harnessed toward the handler; the other movement around is of little interest to the dog. One last note on this issue; I do not use the rest of my pack to exercise a new puppy. I go out one-on-one and play all those fun doggy games with him. He will be with the pack or other dogs enough to be properly socialized, but the majority of play time is with me. As I stated at the beginning, dogs learn what is fun to focus on; make sure that it is you. By, the way; for those of you worrying about having enough time to treat a new dog as an individual, I recently raised #12 of a pack of 12.
    A final word: There are many roads to the same destination, I have just outlined one of them. These ideas are meant for a dog who has chase or prey driven problems; not for dogs with generalized offensive or defensive dog aggression problems which would also present other factors to be dealt with. I hope this helps some of you, or at least gives you some food for thoug

    Prey drive | Dogs

    Whether you realize it or not, your dog playing with a squeaker toy could be them expressing prey drive. The same goes for them chasing a ball or fetching a stick. When a dog is staring down a squirrel or sniffing along the path where a cat has just been, that is many generations of carnivorous predatory behavior at work.
    Prey drive is what motivates carnivores to continue to hunt for their next meal. While pet dogs rarely need to hunt for food, the silent staring, the stalking, the chasing, and the biting (whether to grab or kill) are all part of the prey drive. The prey is usually a small animal, such as a cat, frog, squirrel or bird, but some dogs will hunt deer or even other dogs.
    Sometimes these normal prey drive instincts cross into behavior that is not appropriate for modern dog life. When your dog is chasing cats, deer, squirrels, or other small dogs, their strong sense of prey drive poses safety concerns. People, pets, and wildlife can be in danger if a dog’s prey drive escalates and causes them to bite or attack. The good news is, prey drive is quite manageable through safety precautions and training.
    What causes prey drive?
    Some dogs are more prone to stubborn and intense prey drive, but it’s logical. For example, Border Collies were bred to have a strong drive to spot, stalk, and chase sheep but stop before they bite. On the other hand, Terriers were bred to chase and kill rodents. Greyhounds, Pit Bulls, Hounds, and Retrievers have all been bred and trained to strengthen their prey drive over many generations to help people with various tasks and activities, such as hunting.
    A high level of prey drive can be hard for the average pet parent to manage, but a dog with high prey drive may be well suited as a working dog.
    Does prey drive mean my dog is aggressive?
    Prey drive is not the same as aggression. While a dog with strong prey drive may also have aggressive behaviors, dogs with high prey drive are not necessarily aggressive. Aggressive behavior is when a dog acts violently due to emotion, such as fear or protectiveness. A dog guarding his food from the cat is acting aggressively. A dog chasing the cat to bite or kill it is displaying prey drive.
    Normally, an aggressive dog is trying to get away from the thing that is causing the negative emotion or may try to scare it off by barking or growling. Prey drive is causing a dog to head towards their prey.
    Is prey drive dangerous?
    Dogs with low prey drive normally don’t pose a risk to those around them, but if you see signs of prey drive (stalking, chasing, or biting other animals) you should use extra caution. Consult with a positive reinforcement trainer to discuss training methods to help your dog moderate their prey drive. If your dog has shown any indication that they may bite, they should be muzzled when around other animals and never permitted to run off-leash. Be especially careful around small children in the home and outside on bikes or skateboards as they can be quite triggering for dogs with prey drive.
    Nearly all dogs show some signs of prey drive and normally can satisfy their urges with a game of fetch or tug of war. However, if your dog is showing intense prey drive, it’s time to talk to a professional about remedying this potentially dangerous behavior.